"gigantopterid" = an English noun describing large leaves with complex reticulate venation resembling the Cathaysian fossil seed plant genus Gigantopteris and North American genus Delnortea of the Permian Period, 260 million years ago"

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[ Scientific Papers ]

A cut slab of a massive permineralized log of Araucarioxylon arizonicum (incertae cedis) is shown to the right. Reddish silicates are prevalent in these permineralizations.

Less colorful permineralized woods found in this region of the North American Triassic include Schilderia adamanica and Woodworthia arizonica, coniferous seed plants incertae cedis (Creber and Ash 2004, Ash 2005).

The image was captured by T. Scott Williams, Petrified Forest National Park Curator and Photographer. The picture is reproduced here with his written permission.

This sample reading list of journal articles was assembled by the author in 2009 while constructing the three gigantopteroid essays: I apologize for overlooking other journal articles of possible interest.


Achard, P. and P. Genschik. 2009. Releasing the brakes of plant growth: how GAs shutdown DELLA proteins. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(4): 1085-1092.

Agrawal, A. A., J.-P. Salminen, and M. Fishbein. 2009. Phylogenetic trends in phenolic metabolism of milkweeds (Asclepias): evidence for escalation. Evolution 63(3): 663-673.

Ahmed, S., S. G. Compton, R. K. Butlin, and P. M. Gilmartin. 2009. Wind-borne insects mediate directional pollen transfer between desert fig trees 160 kilometers apart. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(48): 20342-20347.

Ahuja, M. R. 2009. Genetic constitution and diversity in four narrow endemic redwoods from the family Cupressaceae. Euphytica 165: 5-19.

Alekseev, P. I. 2009. Genus Liriodendrites in Cretaceous and early Paleogene floras. Paleontological Journal 43(10): 1181-1189.

Alexeev, A. V. 2009. New jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Cretaceous of Russia, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia. Paleontological Journal 43(3): 277-281.

Allouche, N., C. Apel, M.-T. Martin, V. Dumontet, F. Guéritte, and M. Litaudon. 2009. Cytotoxic sesquiterpenoids from Winteraceae of Caledonian rainforest. Phytochemistry 70(4): 546-553.

Almeida, E. A. B. and B. N. Danforth. 2009. Phylogeny of colletid bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) inferred from four nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50(2): 290-309.

Alvarez, J. P., A. Goldshmidt, I. Efroni, J. L. Bowman, and Y. Eshed. 2009. The NGATHA distal organ developmental genes are essential for style specification in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell 21: 1373-1393.

Alvarez-Ponce, D., M. Aguadé, and J. Rozas. 2009. Network-level molecular evolutionary analysis of the insulin/TOR signal transduction pathway across 12 Drosophila genomes. Genome Research 19(2): 234-242.

Amore, V., M. Belardinelli, L. Guerra, F. Buonocore, A. M. Fausto, N. Ubero-Pascal, and R. Fochetti. 2009. Do all stonefly nymphs have respiratory proteins? Further data on the presence of hemocyanin in the larval stages of Plecoptera species. Insect Molecular Biology 18(2): 203-211.

Anderson, A. R., K. W. Wanner, S. C. Trowell, C. G. Warr, E. Jacquin-Joly, P. Zagatti, H. Robertson, and R. D. Newcomb. 2009. Molecular basis of female-specific odorant responses in Bombyx mori. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 39(3): 189-197.

Antonelli, A., J. A. A. Nylander, C. Persson, and I. Sanmartín. 2009. Tracing the impact of the Andean uplift on Neotropical plant evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(24): 9749-9754.

APG III. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 105-121.

Aristov, D. S. 2009. New grylloblattids of the family Lemmatophoridae (Insecta: Grylloblattida) from the Permian of Russia. Paleontological Journal 43(3): 272-276.

Aristov, D. S. 2009. Review of the stratigraphic distribution of Permian Grylloblattida (Insecta), with descriptions of new taxa. Paleontological Journal 43(6): 643-651.

Aristov, D. S., T. Wappler, and A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2009. New and little known grylloblattids of the family Geinitziidae (Insecta: Grylloblattida) from the Triassic and Jurassic of Europe, Asia, and South Africa. Paleontological Journal 43(4): 418-424.

Armbruster, W. S., J. Lee, and B. G. Baldwin. 2009. Macroevolutionary patterns of defense and pollination in Dalechampia vines: adaptation, exaptation, and evolutionary novelty. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(43): 18085-18090.

Ash, S. 2009. A late Triassic flora and associated invertebrate fossils from the basal beds of the Chinle Formation in Dinnebito Wash, east-central Arizona, USA. Palaeontographica Abt. B 282(1-3): 1-37.

Ayala, F. J. 2009. One hundred fifty years without Darwin are enough! Genome Research 19(5): 693-699.

Bacci, Jr., M., S. E. Solomon, U. G. Mueller, V. G. Martins, A. O. R. Carvalho, L. G. E. Vieira, and A. C. O. Silva-Pinhati. 2009. Phylogeny of leafcutter ants in the genus Atta Fabricius (Formicidae: Attini) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52(3): 427-437.

Balseiro, D., J. J. Rustán, M. Espeleta, and N. E. Vaccari. 2009. A new Serpukhovian (Mississippian) fossil flora from western Argentina: paleoclimatic, paleobiogeographic, and stratigraphic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology 280(3-4): 517-531.

von Balthazar, M. and J. Schönenberger. 2009. Floral structure and organization in Platanaceae. International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(2): 210-225.

Banerjee, M., S. Mitra, and S. Dutta. 2009. On the occurrence of three species of Annularia Sternberg in the early Permian Glossopteris flora of peninsular India. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 153(3-4): 394-407.

Banks, J. A. 2009. Selaginella and 400 million years of separation. Annual Review of Plant Biology 60: 223-238.

Bao, R. and M. Friedrich. 2009. Molecular evolution of the Drosophila retinome: exceptional gene gain in the higher Diptera. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26(6): 1273-1287.

Barker, M. S., K. M. Diugosch, A. C. C. Reddy, S. N. Amyotte, and L. H. Rieseberg. 2009. SCARF: maximizing next-generation EST assemblies for evolutionary and population genomic analyses. Bioinformatics 25(4): 535-536.

Barker, M. S., H. Vogel, and M. E. Schranz. 2009. Paleopolyploidy in the Brassicales: analyses of the Cleome transcriptome elucidate the history of genome duplications in Arabidopsis and other Brassicales. Genome Biology and Evolution 1: 391-399.

Barrett, P. M., A. J. McGowan, and V. Page. 2009. Dinosaur diversity and the rock record. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 276(1667): 2667-2674.

Barroso-Barcenilla, F., O. Cambra-Moo, F. Escaso, F. Ortega, A. Pascual, A. Pérez-Garcia, J. Rodriguez-Lázaro, J. L. Sanz, M. Segura, and A. Torices. 2009. New and exceptional discovery in the Upper Cretaceous of the Iberian Peninsula: the palaeontological site of "Lo Hueco," Cuenca, Spain. Cretaceous Research 30(5): 1268-1278.

Bartiromo, A., G. Barale, M. R. B. Lumaga, S. Bravi, and F. Barattolo. 2009. The early Cretaceous flora from Profeti, Caserta, southern Italy. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 158(1-2): 101-116.

Bateman, R. M. and J. Hilton. 2009. Palaeobotanical systematics for the phylogenetic age: applying organ-species, form-species, and phylogenetic species concepts in a framework of reconstructed fossil and extant whole-plants. Taxon 58(4): 1254-1280.

Bauer, U., C. Willmes, and W. Federle. 2009. Effect of pitcher age on trapping efficiency and natural prey capture in carnivorous Nepenthes rafflesiana plants. Annals of Botany 103(8): 1219-1226.

Becerra, J. X., K. Noge, and D. L. Venable. 2009. Macroevolutionary chemical escalation in an ancient plant-herbivore arms race. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(43): 18062-18066.

Belcher, C. M., P. Finch, M. E. Collinson, A. C. Scott, and N. V. Grassineau. 2009. Geochemical evidence for combustion of hydrocarbons during the K-T impact event. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(11): 4112-4117.

Bello, M. A., A. Bruneau, F. Forest, and J. A. Hawkins. 2009. Elusive relationships within order Fabales: phylogenetic analysis using matK and rbcL sequence data. Systematic Botany 34(1): 102-114.

Benjak, A., S. Boué, A. Forneck, and J. M. Casacuberta. 2009. Recent amplification and impact of MITEs on the genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Genome Biology and Evolution 1(1): 75-84.

Benková, E., M. G. Ivanchenko, J. Friml, S. Shishkova, and J. G. Dubrovsky. 2009. A morphogenetic trigger: is there an emerging concept in plant developmental biology? Trends in Plant Science 14(4): 189-193.

Bennington, J. B., W. A. DiMichele, C. Badgley, R. K. Bambach, P. M. Barrett, K. Behrensmeyer, R. Bobe, R. J. Burnham, E. B. Daeschler, J. Van Dam, J. T. Eronen, D. H. Erwin, S. Finnegan, S. M. Holland, G. Hunt, D. Jablonski, S. T. Jackson, B. F. Jacobs, S. M. Kidwell, P. L. Koch, M. J. Kowalewski, C. C. Labandeira, C. V. Looy, S. K. Lyons, P. M. Novack-Gottshall, R. Potts, P. D. Roopnarine, C. A. E. Strömberg, H.-D. Sues, P. J. Wagner, P. Wilf, and S. L. Wing. 2009. Critical issues of scale in paleoecology. Palaios 24(1): 1-4.

Benton, M. J. 2009. The red queen and the court jester: species diversity and the role of biotic and abiotic factors through time. Science 323(5915): 728-732.

Benton, M. J. 2009. Dinosaurs. Current Biology 19(8): R318-R323.

Bercovici, A., J. B. Diez, J. Broutin, S. Bourquin, B. Linol, U. Villanueva-Amadoz, J. López-Gómez, and M. Durand. 2009. A palaeoenvironmental analysis of Permian sediments in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) with new palynological and megafloral data. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 158(1-2): 14-28.

Bercovici, A., D. Pearson, D. Nichols, and J. Wood. 2009. Biostratigraphy of selected K/T boundary sections in southwestern North Dakota, USA: toward a refinement of palynological identification criteria. Cretaceous Research 30(3): 632-658.

Berendse, F. and M. Scheffer. 2009. The angiosperm radiation revisited, an ecological explanation for Darwin's 'abominable mystery.' Ecology Letters 12(9): 865-872.

Berjano, R., F. Roa, S. Talavera, and M. Guerra. 2009. Cytotaxonomy of diploid and polyploid Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) species based on the distribution of CMA/DAPI bands and 5S and 45S rDNA sites. Plant Systematics and Evolution 280(3-4): 219-227.

Béthoux, O. 2009. The earliest beetle identified. Journal of Paleontology 83(6): 931-937.

Biémont, C. 2009. Are transposable elements simply silenced or are they under house arrest? Trends in Genetics 25(8): 333-334.

Bishop, J. W., I. P. Montañez, E. L. Gulbranson, and P. L. Brenckle. 2009. The onset of mid-Carboniferous glacioeustasy: sedimentologic and diagenetic constraints, Arrow Canyon, Nevada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, and Palaeoecology 276(1-4): 217-243.

Blokhina, N. I. and M. A. Afonin. 2009. New species of Piceoxylon Gothan (Pinaceae) from the Cretaceous and Paleogene of the northwestern Kamchatka Peninsula. Paleontological Journal 43(10): 1190-1201.

Bolin, J. F., E. Maass, and L. J. Musselman. 2009. Pollination biology of Hydnora africana Thunb. (Hydnoraceae) in Namibia: brood-site mimicry with insect imprisonment. International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(2): 157-163.

Bolognesi, R., T. D. Fischer, and S. J. Brown. 2009. Loss of Tc-arrow and canonical Wnt signaling alters posterior morphology and pair-rule gene expression in the short-germ insect, Tribolium castaneum. Development, Genes and Evolution 219(7): 369-375.

Bond, D. P. G. and P. B. Wignall. 2009. Latitudinal selectivity of foraminifer extinctions during the late Guadalupian crisis. Paleobiology 35(4): 465-483.

Bonfante, P. and L.-A. Anca. 2009. Plants, mycorrhizal fungi, and bacteria: a network of interactions. Annual Review of Microbiology 63: 363-383.

Bonis, N. R., W. M. Kürschner, and L. Krystyn. 2009. A detailed palynological study of the Triassic-Jurassic transition in key sections of the Eiberg Basin (northern calcareous Alps, Austria). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 156(3-4): 376-400.

Bonnivard, E. and D. Higuet. 2009. Fluidity of eukaryotic genomes. Comptes Rendus Biologies 332(2-3): 234-240.

Booi, M., I. M. van Waveren, and J. H. A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert. 2009. Comia and Rhachiphyllum from the early Permian of Sumatra, Indonesia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 156(3-4): 418-435.

Booi, M., I. M. Van Waveren, and J. H. A. Van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert. 2009. The Jambi gigantopterids and their place in gigantopterid classification. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(3): 302-328.

Borg, M., L. Brownfield, and D. Twell. 2009. Male gametophyte development: a molecular perspective. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(5): 1465-1478.

Borghuis, A., J. van Groenendael, O. Madsen, and J. Ouborg. 2009. Phylogenetic analyses of the leaf beetle genus Galerucella: evidence for host switching at speciation? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53(2): 361-367.

Borsch, T. and D. Quandt. 2009. Mutational dynamics and phylogenetic utility of noncoding chloroplast DNA. Plant Systematics and Evolution 282(3-4): 169-199.

Borsch, T., D. Quandt, and M. Koch. 2009. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility of noncoding DNA: applications from species to deep level questions. Plant Systematics and Evolution 282(3-4): 107-108.

Borst, A. 2009. Drosophila's view on insect vision. Current Biology 19(1): R36-R47.

Bowler, P. J. 2009. Darwin's originality. Science 323(5911): 223-226.

Boyce, C. K. 2009. Seeing the forest with the leaves - clues to canopy placement from leaf fossil size and venation characteristics. Geobiology 7: 192-199.

Boyce, C. K., T. J. Brodribb, T. S. Field, and M. A. Zwieniecki. 2009. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 276(1663): 1771-1776.

Bradley, T. J., A. D. Briscoe, S. G. Brady, H. L. Contreras, B. N. Danforth, R. Dudley, D. Grimaldi, J. F. Harrison, J. A. Kaiser, C. Merlin, S. M. Reppert, J. M. VandenBrooks, and S. P. Yanoviak. 2009. Episodes in insect evolution. Integrative and Comparative Biology 49(5): 590-606.

Brandenburg, A., A. Dell'Olivo, R. Bshary, and C. Kuhlemeier. 2009. The sweetest thing: advances in nectar research. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12(4): 486-490.

Brandley, M. C., D. L. Warren, A. D. Leaché, and J. A. McGuire. 2009. Homoplasy and clade support. Systematic Biology 58(2): 184-198.

Brasier, M., L. Cotton, and I. Yenney. 2009. First report of amber with spider webs and microbial inclusions from the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 140 Ma) of Hastings, Sussex. Journal of the Geological Society 166(6): 989-997.

Braukmann, T. W. A., M. Kuzmina, and S. Stefanovič. 2009. Loss of all plastid ndh genes in Gnetales and conifers: extent and evolutionary significance for the seed plant phylogeny. Current Genetics 55(3): 323-337.

Bray, P. S. and K. B. Anderson. 2009. Identification of Carboniferous (320 million years old) class 1c amber. Science 326(5949): 132-134.

Brayard, A., G. Escarguel, H. Bucher, C. Monnet, T. Brühwiler, N. Goudemand, T. Galfetti, and J. Guex. 2009. Good genes and good luck: ammonoid diversity and the end-Permian mass extinction. Science 325(5944): 1118-1121.

Brea, M., A. E. Artabe, and L. A. Spalletti. 2009. Darwin Forest at Agua de la Zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina 64(1): 21-31.

Bremer, B. 2009. A review of molecular phylogenetic studies of Rubiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96(1): 4-26.

Bremer, B. and T. Eriksson. 2009. Time tree of Rubiaceae: phylogeny and dating the family, subfamilies, and tribes. International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(6): 766-793.

Brink, K. S., R. A. Stockey, G. Beard, and W. G. Wehr. 2009. Cunninghamia hornbyensis sp. nov.: permineralized twigs and leaves from the upper Cretaceous of Hornby Island, British Columbia, Canada. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 155(1-2): 89-98.

Brockington, S. F., R. Alexandre, J. Ramdial, M. J. Moore, S. Crawley, A. Dhingra, K. Hilu, D. E. Soltis, and P. S. Soltis. 2009. Phylogeny of the Caryophyllales sensu lato: revisiting hypotheses on pollination biology and perianth differentiation in the core Caryophyllales. International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(5): 627-643.

Brodribb, T. J., S. A. M. McAdam, G. J. Jordan, and T. S. Feild. 2009. Evolution of stomatal responsiveness to CO2 and optimization of water-use efficiency among land plants. New Phytologist 183(3): 839-847.

Buchanan, A. V., S. Sholtis, J. Richtsmeier, and K. M. Weiss. 2009. What are genes "for" or where are traits "from"? What is the question? BioEssays 31(2): 198-208.

Buckley, T. R., D. Attanayake, and S. Bradler. 2009. Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 276(1659): 1055-1062.

Budd, G. E. and M. J. Telford. 2009. The origin and evolution of arthropods. Nature 457: 812-817.

Busch, A. and S. Zachgo. 2009. Flower symmetry evolution: towards understanding the abominable mystery of angiosperm radiation. BioEssays 31(11): 1181-1190 [see also corrigendum 32(7): 642].

Butler, R. J., P. M. Barrett, P. Kenrick, and M. G. Penn. 2009. Diversity patterns amongst herbivorous dinosaurs and plants during the Cretaceous: implications for hypotheses of dinosaur/angiosperm coevolution. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(3): 446-459.

Butler, R. J., P. M. Barrett, P. Kenrick, and M. G. Penn. 2009. Testing coevolutionary hypotheses over geological timescales: interactions between Mesozoic non-avian dinosaurs and cycads. Biological Reviews 84(1): 73-89.

Cai, G. and M. Cresti. 2009. Organelle motility in the pollen tube: a tale of 20 years. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(2): 495-508.

Calonje, M., S. Martín-Bravo, C. Dobeš, W. Gong, I. Jordon-Thaden, C. Kiefer, M. Kiefer, J. Paule, R. Schmicki, and M. A. Koch. 2009. Non-coding nuclear DNA markers in phylogenetic reconstruction. Plant Systematics and Evolution 282(3-4): 257-280.

Cande, J., Y. Goltsev, and M. S. Levine. 2009. Conservation of enhancer location in divergent insects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(34): 14414-14419.

Cao, C., G. D. Love, L. E. Hays, W. Wang, S. Shen, and R. E. Summons. 2009. Biogeochemical evidence for euxinic oceans and ecological disturbance presaging the end-Permian mass extinction event. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 281(3-4): 188-201.

Cariglino, B., P. R. Gutiérrez, and M. Manassero. 2009. Plumsteadia pedicellata sp. nov.: a new glossopterid fructification from La Golondrina Formation (Guadalupian-Lopingian), Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 156(3-4): 329-336.

Carlquist, S. 2009. Darwin on island plants. Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 161(1): 20-25.

Carlquist, S. 2009. Xylem heterochrony: an unappreciated key to angiosperm origin and diversifications. Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 161(1): 26-65.

Carlquist, S. and E. L. Schneider. 2009. Do tracheid microstructure and the presence of minute crystals link Nymphaeaceae, Cabombaceae, and Hydatellaceae? Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 159(4): 572-582.

Carlquist, S., E. L. Schneider, and C. B. Hellquist. 2009. Xylem of early angiosperms: Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) has novel tracheid microstructure. American Journal of Botany 96(1): 207-215.

Cartolano, M., N. Efremova, M. Kuckenberg, S. Raman, and Z. Schwarz-Sommer. 2009. Enhanced AGAMOUS expression in the centre of the Arabidopsis flower causes ectopic expression over its outer expression boundaries. Planta 230(4): 857-862.

Catalano, S. A., B. O. Saidman, and J. C. Vilardi. 2009. Evolution of small inversions in chloroplast genomes: a case study from recurrent inversion in angiosperms. Cladistics 25(1): 93-104.

Causier, B., D. Bradley, H. Cook, and B. Davies. 2009. Conserved intragenic elements were critical for the evolution of floral C-function. The Plant Journal 58(1): 41-52.

Césari, S. N., S. A. Marenssi, and S. N. Santillana. 2009. Araucaria fibrosa, a new name to replace the illegitimate name Araucaria antarctica Césari, Marenssi, and Santillana, 2001. Cretaceous Research 30(5): 1169.

Chanderbali, A. S., V. A. Albert, J. Leebens-Mack, N. S. Altman, D. E. Soltis, and P. S. Soltis. 2009. Transcriptional signatures of ancient floral developmental genetics in avocado (Persea americana; Lauraceae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(22): 8929-8934.

Chaney, D. S., S. H. Mamay, W. A. DiMichele, and H. Kerp. 2009. Auritifolia gen. nov., probable seed plant foliage with comioid affinities from the early Permian of Texas, U. S. A. International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(2): 247-266.

Chang, S., H. Zhang, P. R. Renne, and Y. Fang. 2009. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar age constraints on the basal Lanqi Formation and its implications for the origin of angiosperm plants. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 279(3-4): 212-221.

Chapman, E. J. and M. Estelle. 2009. Mechanism of auxin-regulated gene expression in plants. Annual Review of Genetics 43: 265-285.

Chase, M. W. and J. L. Reveal. 2009. A phylogenetic classification of land plants to accompany APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 122-127.

Chaudhary, B., L. Flagel, R. M. Stupar, J. A. Udall, N. Verma, N. M. Springer, and J. F. Wendel. 2009. Reciprocal silencing, transcriptional bias, and functional divergence of homeologs in polyploid cotton (Gossypium). Genetics 182: 503-517.

Chehab, E. W., E. Eich, and J. Braam. 2009. Thigmomorphogenesis: a complex plant response to mechano-stimulation. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(1): 43-56.

Chen, X. 2009. Small RNAs and their role in plant development. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 25: 21-44.

Chen, X.-Y. and F. He. 2009. Speciation and endemism under the model of island biogeography. Ecology 90(1): 39-45.

Chiang, Y.-C., K.-H. Hung, S.-J. Moore, X.-J. Ge, S. Huang, T.-W. Hsu, B. A. Schaal, and T. Y. Chiang. 2009. Paraphyly of organelle DNAs in Cycas Sect. Asiorientales due to ancient ancestral polymorphisms. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:161.

Chin, K., J. H. Hartman, and B. Roth. 2009. Opportunistic exploitation of dinosaur dung: fossil snails in coprolites from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Lethaia 42(2): 185-198.

del C. Jiménez-Pérez, N. and F. G. Lorea-Hernández. 2009. Identity and delimitation of the American species of Litsea Lam. (Lauraceae): a morphological approach. Plant Systematics and Evolution 283(1-2): 19-32.

Choe, C. P. and S. J. Brown. 2009. Genetic regulation of engrailed and wingless in Tribolium segmentation and the evolution of pair-rule segmentation. Developmental Biology 325(2): 482-491.

Chopra, V. S., J.-W. Hongm and M. Levine. 2009. Regulation of Hox gene activity by transcriptional elongation in Drosophila. Current Biology 19(8): 688-693.

Christianson, M. L. and J. A. Jernstedt. 2009. Reproductive short-shoots of Ginkgo biloba: a quantitative analysis of the disposition of axillary structures. American Journal of Botany 96(11): 1957-1966.

Chuck, G., H. Candela, and S. Hake. 2009. Big impacts by small RNAs in plant development. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12: 81-86.

Chung, H., T. Sztal, S. Pasricha, M. Sridhar, P. Batterham, and P. L. Daborn. 2009. Characterization of Drosophila melanogaster cytochrome P450 genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(14): 5731-5736.

Cibrián-Jaramillo and R. A. Martienssen. 2009. Darwin's "abominable mystery": the role of RNA interference in the evolution of flowering plants. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 74: 267-273.

Cirilli, S., A. Marzoli, L. Tanner, H. Bertrand, N. Buratti, F. Jourdan, G. Bellieni, D. Kontak, and P. R. Renne. 2009. Latest Triassic onset of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) volcanism in the Fundy Basin (Nova Scotia): new stratigraphic constraints. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 286(3-4): 514-525.

Clapham, M. E., S. Shen, and D. J. Bottjer. 2009. The double mass extinction revisited: reassessing the severity, selectivity, and causes of the end-Guadalupian biotic crisis (late Permian). Paleobiology 35(1): 32-50.

Clarke, D. J. and S. Chatzimanolis. 2009. Antiquity and long-term morphological stasis in a group of rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae): description of the oldest Octavius species from Cretaceous Burmese amber and a review of the "euaesthetine subgroup" fossil record. Cretaceous Research 30(6): 1426-1434.

Clayton, J. W., P. S. Soltis, and D. E. Soltis. 2009. Recent long-distance dispersal overshadows ancient biogeographical patterns in a pantropical angiosperm family (Simaroubaceae, Sapindales). Systematic Biology 58(4): 395-410.

Cleal, C. J., C. H. Shute, J. Hilton, and J. Carter. 2009. A revision of the Pennsylvanian-aged Eremopteris-bearing seed plant. International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(5): 666-698.

Coe, F. G. and A. J. Bornstein. 2009. A new species of Piper (Piperaceae) from Cordillera Nombre de Dios, Honduras. Systematic Botany 34(3): 492-495.

Cognato, A. I. and D. Grimaldi. 2009. 100 million years of morphological conservation in bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Systematic Entomology 34(1): 93-100.

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Warner, K. A., P. J. Rudall, and M. W. Frohlich. 2009. Environmental control of sepalness and petalness in perianth organs of waterlilies: a new Mosaic Theory for the evolutionary origin of a differentiated perianth. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(12): 3559-3574.

Wcislo, W. T. and S. M. Tierney. 2009. Behavioural environments and niche construction: the evolution of dim-light foraging in bees. Biological Reviews 84(1): 19-37.

Wellman, C. H. 2009. Ultrastructure of dispersed and in situ specimens of the Devonian spore Rhabdosporites langii: evidence for the evolutionary relationships of progymnosperms. Palaeontology 52(1): 139-167.

Werner, T. and T. Schmülling. 2009. Cytokinin action in plant development. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12(5): 527-538.

Whalley, J., S. Brooks, and R. G. Beiko. 2009. Radié: visualizing taxon properties and parsimonious mappings using a radial phylogenetic tree. Bioinformatics 25(5): 672-673.

Wheeler, B. M., A. M. Heimberg, V. N. Moy, E. A. Sperling, T. W. Holstein, S. Heber, and K. J. Peterson. 2009. The deep evolution of metazoan microRNAs. Evolution and Development 11(1): 50-68.

Wheeler, E. A. and T. M. Lehman. 2009. New late Cretaceous and Paleocene dicot woods of Big Bend National Park, Texas, and review of Cretaceous wood characteristics. IAWA Journal 30(3): 293-318.

Whitney, H. M., M. Kolle, P. Andrew, L. Chittka, U. Steiner, and B. J. Glover. 2009. Floral iridescence produced by diffractive optics acts as a cue for animal pollinators. Science 323(5910): 130-133.

Whitney, K. D. 2009. Comparative evolution of flower and fruit morphology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 276(1669): 2941-2947.

Widmer, A., C. Lexer, and S. Cozzolino. 2009. Evolution of reproductive isolation in plants. Heredity 102: 31-38.

Wiens, J. J. 2009. Paleontology, genomics, and combined-data phylogenetics: can molecular data improve phylogeny estimation for fossil taxa? Systematic Biology 58(1): 87-99.

Wignall, P. B., Y. Sun, D. P. G. Bond, G. Izon, R. J. Newton, S. Védrine, M. Widdowson, J. R. Ali, X.-L. Lai, H.-S. Jiang, H. Cope, and S. H. Bottrell. 2009. Volcanism, mass extinction, and carbon isotope fluctuations in the Middle Permian of China. Science 324(5931): 1179-1182.

Wignall, P. B., S. Védrine, D. P. G. Bond, W. Wang, X.-L. Lai, J. R. Ali, and H.-S. Jiang. 2009. Facies analysis and sea-level change at the Guadalupian-Lopingian global stratotype (Laibin, South China), and its bearing on the end-Guadalupian mass extinction. Journal of the Geological Society 166(4): 655-666.

Wilf, P., S. A. Little, A. Iglesias, M. del Carmen Zamaloa, M. A. Gandolfo, N. R. Cúneo, and K. R. Johnson. 2009. Papuacedrus (Cupressaceae) in Eocene Patagonia, a new fossil link to Australasian rainforests. American Journal of Botany 96(11): 2031-2047.

Wilkins, O., H. Nahal, J. Foong, N. J. Provart, and M. M. Campbell. 2009. Expansion and diversification of the Populus R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors. Plant Physiology 149: 981-993.

Williams, J. H. 2009. Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae) and the evolutionary developmental origins of the angiosperm progamic phase. American Journal of Botany 96(1): 144-165.

Williams, V. S., P. M. Barrett, and M. A. Purnell. 2009. Quantitative analysis of dental microwear in hadrosaurid dinosaurs, and the implications for hypotheses of jaw mechanics and feeding. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(27): 11194-11199.

Williford, K. H., J. Foriel, P. D. Ward, and E. J. Steig. 2009. Major perturbation in sulfur cycling at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Geology 37(9): 835-838.

Willyard, A., R. Cronin, and A. Liston. 2009. Reticulate evolution and incomplete lineage sorting among the ponderosa pines. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52(2): 498-511.

Wilson, M. J. and P. K. Dearden. 2009. Tailless patterning functions are conserved in the honeybee even in the absence of Torso signaling. Developmental Biology 325(1): 276-287.

Wing, S. L., F. Herrera, C. A. Jaramillo, C. Gómez-Navarro, P. Wilf, and C. C. Labandeira. 2009. Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejón Formation, Columbia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(44): 18843-18848.

Winkler, I. S., C. Mitter, and S. J. Scheffer. 2009. Repeated climate-linked host shifts have promoted diversification in a temperate clade of leaf-mining flies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(43): 18103-18108.

Wolfe, A. P., R. Tappert, K. Muehlenbachs, M. Boudreau, R. C. McKellar, J. F. Basinger, and A. Garrett. 2009. A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 276(1672): 3403-3412.

Wu, C.-I., Y. Shen, and T. Tang. 2009. Evolution under canalization and the dual roles of microRNAs – a hypothesis. Genome Research 19(5): 734-743.

Wu, C.-S., Y.-T. Lai, C.-P. Lin, Y.-N. Wang, and S.-M. Chaw. 2009. Evolution of reduced and compact chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs) in gnetophytes: selection toward a lower-cost strategy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52(1): 115-124.

Wystrach, A. and G. Beugnon. 2009. Ants learn geometry and features. Current Biology 19(1): 61-66.

Xu, G., H. Ma, M. Nei, and H. Kong. 2009. Evolution of F-box genes in plants: different modes of sequence divergence and their relationships with functional diversification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(3): 835-840.

Xu, X., J. M. Clark, J. Mo, J. Choiniere, C. A. Forster, G. M. Erickson, D. W. E. Hone, C. Sullivan, D. A. Eberth, S. Nesbitt, Q. Zhao, R. Hernandez, C.-K. Jia, F.-L. Han, and Y. Guo. 2009. A Jurassic ceratosaur from China helps clarify avian digital homologies. Nature 459: 940-944.

Yadav, R. K., T. Girke, S. Pasala, M. Xie, and G. V. Reddy. 2009. Gene expression map of the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem stem cell niche. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(12): 4941-4946.

Yamada, T. 2009. Structurally preserved Zamites bayeri Kvaček from the Coniacian Kashima Formation (Yezo Group) of Hokkaido, Japan. Cretaceous Research 30(5): 1301-1306.

Yamada, T., J. Legrand, and H. Nishida. 2009. Structurally preserved Nilssoniopteris from the Arida Formation (Barremian, Lower Cretaceous) of southwest Japan. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 156(3-4): 410-417.

Yan, E. V. 2009. A new genus of elateriform beetles (Coleoptera, Polyphaga) from the middle-late Jurassic of Karatau. Paleontological Journal 43(1): 78.

Yang, Y. and A. D. Miall. 2009. Evolution of the northern cordilleran foreland basin during the middle Cretaceous. GSA Bulletin 121(3-4): 483-501.

Yeang, H.-Y. 2009. Circadian and solar clocks interact in seasonal flowering. BioEssays 31(11): 1211-1218.

Yedid, G., C. A. Ofria, and R. E. Lenski. 2009. Selective press extinctions, but no random pulse extinctions, cause delayed ecological recovery in communities of digital organisms. The American Naturalist 173: E139-E154.

Yonemura, N., K. Mita, T. Tamura, and F. Sehnal. 2009. Conservation of silk genes in Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. Journal of Molecular Evolution 68(6): 641-653.

You, H.-L. and D.-Q. Li. 2009. The first well-preserved early Cretaceous brachiosaurid dinosaur in Asia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 276(1675): 4077-4082.

Yu, L., V. Patibanda, and H. M. S. Smith. 2009. A novel role of BELL1-like homeobox genes, PENNYWISE and POUNDFOOLISH, in floral patterning. Planta 229(3): 693-707.

Zavialova, N. E. and A. V. Gomankov. 2009. Occurrence of angiosperm-like ultrastructural features in gymnosperm pollen from the Permian of Russia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 156(1-2): 79-89.

Zavialova, N. E., J. H. A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, and M. Zavada. 2009. The pollen ultrastructure of Williamsoniella coronata Thomas (Bennettitales) from the Bajocian of Yorkshire. International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(9): 1195-1200.

Zhang, X.-C., S. B. Cannon, and G. Stacey. 2009. Evolutionary genomics of LysM genes in land plants. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 183.

Zhang, Z. and S. R. Palli. 2009. Identification of a cis-regulatory element required for 20-hydroxyecdysone enhancement of antimicrobial peptide gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Molecular Biology 18(5): 595-605.

Zhou, Q., L. Yu, X. Shen, Y. Li, W. Xu, Y. Yi, Z. Zhang. 2009. Homology of dipteran bristles and lepidopteran scales: requirement for the Bombyx mori achaete-scute homologue of ASH2. Genetics 183: 619-627.

Zhou, Z.-Y. 2009. An overview of fossil Ginkgoales. Palaeoworld 18(1): 1-22.

Zijlstra, G., E. Kustatscher, and H. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert. 2009. Proposal to conserve the name Sphenozamites (fossil Cycadophyta). Taxon 58(3): 1016.

Zinzen, R. P., C. Giradot, J. Gagneur, M. Braun, and E. E. M. Furlong. 2009. Combinatorial binding predicts spatio-temporal cis-regulatory activity. Nature 462: 65-70.

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