"gigantopterid" = an English noun describing large leaves with complex reticulate venation resembling the Cathaysian fossil seed plant genus Gigantopteris and North American genus Delnortea of the Permian Period, 260 million years ago"

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  • Articles
  • Biostratigraphy of the Permian Standard Section
  • Degeneriaceae of Fiji: Living "Fossil" Magnoliids
  • Guidelines for Authors Wishing to Contribute

    Popular Articles

  • Library and Student Resources
  • Publication of the Year
  • Reading List of Books and Book Chapters
  • Scientific Papers (Sample Listing of 2009

    Journal Articles)

  • Student Problems
  • Topics for Class and Seminar

    Debate and Discussion

  • Origin of Angiosperms (Flowering Plants)
  • Anatomic and Developmental Considerations
  • Anthophyte Hypothesis
  • Biome and Paleogeographically-based

    Hypotheses

  • Body Plans and Allometric Scaling
  • Chloranthoid Hypothesis
  • Chloroplast Capture and Horizontal Transfer

    (HT) of Genes

  • Coevolution
  • Coevolutionary Arms Race
  • Coevolutionary Hypothesis
  • Comparing Theories and Hypotheses
  • Conclusions on the Origin of Angiosperms
  • Developmental and Genetic Theories
  • Discussion of a Coevolutionary Hypothesis
  • Ecologic Considerations
  • Ecology of Paleozoic Seed Plants
  • Evolutionary Considerations
  • First Clues on the Origin of Angiosperms
  • Fitness Landscapes
  • Gene and Whole Genome Duplications (WGDs)
  • Genetic Considerations
  • Gonophyll Theory
  • Helix-turn-helix (HTH) Proteins
  • Homeotic Selector Genes
  • Insect Developmental Tool Kit
  • Insect Hexamerins (Hxs):

    Molecular Evolution of Hemocyanins (Hcs)

  • Insect-plant Mimesis
  • Insect Sensing and Hormone Signaling
  • Interspecific Hybridization
  • Land Plant Developmental Tool Kit
  • Literature Cited on the Origin of Angiosperms
  • MicroRNAs (MiRNAs)
  • Multiple Origins Hypotheses
  • Mutualisms
  • Natural Products, Phytohormones, and Signaling
  • Paleoecology of Global Catastrophe
  • Paleoherb Hypothesis
  • Physiologic Considerations
  • Physiology and Molecular Biology of

    Cone Development and Flowering

  • Physiology of Homeodomain Transcription Factor

    (TF) Trafficking

  • Possible Problems with Existing Data Sets
  • Previous Hypotheses and Theories on the

    Origin and Evolution of Flowering Plants

  • Pseudanthial Theory
  • Reproductive Modules
  • Seed Fern Hypotheses
  • Thigmomorphogenesis
  • Transposable Elements (TEs)
  • Unifying Theories
  • Woody Magnoliid and Ranalian

    Theories and Hypotheses



  • Paleobotany of Angiosperm Origins
  • Arthropod Assemblages: Paleoentomology of

    Palynivores and Pollinators

  • Asian Gigantopterids
  • Bennettitales
  • Caytoniales
  • Character Analysis and Homology Assessment
  • Conclusions on the Paleobotany of

    Angiosperm Origins

  • Corystospermales
  • Cycadales
  • Dating Angiosperm Divergences from the

    Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)

  • Enigmatic Seed Plants of the Mesozoic
  • Evo-devo of Progymnosperm and

    Seed Plant SAMs: Paleozoic Splits

  • Floral Paedomorphism and Coevolving

    Body Allometries

  • Gigantopterids
  • Gigantopteroids or Gigantopterids?

    American Delnorteas and Evolsonias

  • Glossopteridales
  • Gnetales
  • Hypothetical Protoflowers of Gigantopteroids
  • Literature Cited on the Paleobotany of

    Angiosperm Origins

  • Mesozoic Evolution of Holometabolous Insects
  • Paleobotanical Challenges and Choices
  • Paleontologic Evidence
  • Paleozoic Origin of the Holometabola
  • Pentoxylales
  • Phasmatocycas and Other Spermopterids
  • Phylogenetic Considerations
  • Sanmiguelia
  • Seed Plant/Progymnosperm

    Phylogenetic Analyses

  • Seed Plants of the Mesozoic Era
  • Student Problems
  • Taxon-specific Biomarkers (TSBs)
  • Telombs, Trusses, and Potentially

    Tantalizing Questions

  • Tool Kits and Homology
  • Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches
  • Vojnovskyales
  • Evolution of Mesozoic Angiosperms
  • Angiosperm Classification
  • Angiosperm Ghost Lineage
  • Basal Angiosperms
  • Commelinid Monocots
  • Conclusions on the Evolution of

    Mesozoic Angiosperms

  • Core Eudicots, Rosids, and Asterids
  • Cretaceous Explosive Radiation of Angiosperms
  • Crown Group Flowering Plants
  • Eudicots
  • Fossil History
  • Literature Cited on the

    Evolution of Mesozoic Angiosperms

  • Monocots
  • Stem Group Flowering Plants
  • Academic Address
  • Banner Program
  • File Transfer Protocol
  • Image Galleries
  • Mission Statement
  • News
  • Privacy Policy
  • Publications
  • Resume


  • [ List of Tables ]

    Table 1. Comparison of Some Hypotheses and Theories on the Origin of Angiosperms and the Flower

    Table 2. Fossil History of the Provisional Orders of Seed Plants (Excluding Flowering Plants)

    Table 3. Paleozoic and Mesozoic Fossil History of the Main Arthropod Orders of Vascular Plant Antagonists.

    Table 4. Core Pteridosperms, Progymnosperms, and Cycads Without Anthophytes, Conifers, and Gigantopteroids: Character Data Matrix Process PTDSP.

    Table 5. Anthophytes, Conifers, and Gigantopteroids without Core Pteridosperms: Character Data Matrix Process ANTHO.

    Table 6. Mesozoic Fossil History of Subclasses, Orders, and Genera of Flowering Plants According to Cronquist (1981)

    Table 7. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of Basal-, Magnoliid-, and Unclassified Angiosperms

    Table 8. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of Monocots

    Table 9. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of Eudicots and Ceratophyllanae (Except Core Eudicots)

    Table 10. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of Core Eudicots and Unplaced Orders (Except Rosids and Asterids)

    Table 11. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of the Malvid Clade of Rosids

    Table 12. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of the Fabid Clade of Rosids

    Table 13. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of Asterids


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    [ Index to Scientific Names ]



    A - L

    Abies concolor
    Acanthomintha
    Actinocalyx bohrii
    Aculeovinea yunguiensis
    Adiantites
    Afrasita lejalnicoliae
    Afropollis
    Agapitocarpus
    Agujoxylon olacaceoides
    Alamosaurus
    Albuca
    Alisporites
    Allonia decandra
    Alnipollenites
    Alsmithia longipes
    Amborella
    Amborella trichopoda
    Amphorispermum
    Anacostia
    Androcycas santucci
    Androdecidua endressii
    Anomozamites
    Antarcticycas schopfii
    Antiquacupula
    Antiquocarya
    Appomattoxia ancistrophora
    Aquacarpus hirsutus
    Aquatifolia fluitans
    Aquia brookensis
    Aneurophyton
    Araripia florifera
    Araucaria
    Araucarioxylon arizonicum
    Arberiella
    Archaeamphora longicervia
    Archaeanthus
    Archaefagacea futabensis
    Archaefructus liaoningensis
    Archaeopteris
    Archamamelis bivalvis
    Asterocelastrus cretacea
    Asteropollis
    Austrobaileya
    Autunia
    Baasoxylon parenchymatosum
    Baisia
    Baisianthus
    Baruligyna disticha
    Beaupreaidites
    Bedellia
    Beipiaoa
    Belemopteris
    Betulaceoipollenites
    Betulaepollenites
    Bombacoxylon langstoni
    Bombyx mori
    Brandegea
    Bucklandia
    Brachylophus vitiensis
    Brasenites kansense
    Budvaecarpus
    Calandrinia
    Callianthus dilae
    Callicrypta chlamydea
    Callipteris
    Callistophyton
    Calochortus pulchellus
    Caloda delevoryana
    Callospermarion
    Calyptridium
    Canrightia resinifera
    Cardioglossum
    Carnoconites
    Carnoconites cranwelliae
    Caryanthus
    Caspiocarpus paniculiger
    Cathaysiopteridium
    Cathaysiopteris
    Caytonanthus
    Caytonanthus arberi
    Caytonia
    Caytonia nathorstii
    Claytonia
    Claytonia parviflora subsp. parviflora
    Chitaleypushpam mohgaoense
    Chloranthistemon
    Chontrocarpus
    Cistanthe
    Citrullus
    Classopollis
    Classopollis myerianus
    Clavatipollenites
    Coahuilanthus belindae
    Coahuilacarpon phytolaccoides
    Cobbania corrugata
    Couperites mauldinensis
    Cretovarium
    Cronquistiflora sayrevillensis
    Crossozamia
    Cucumis
    Cucurbita
    Araucaria Cupressus
    Cycadeoidea
    Cycadeoidella
    Cycadolepis
    Cycandra
    Cycas revoluta
    Cycas rumphii
    Cymatospira
    Dacrydium nausoriense
    Dacrydium nidulum
    Dacrycarpus imbricatus
    Dadoxylon
    Dahlgrenianthus
    Danaeites
    Deccananthus savitrii
    Dechellyia gormanii
    Decussocarpus vitiensis
    Degeneria
    Degeneria roseiflora
    Degeneria vitiensis
    Delemaya spinulosa
    Delnortea abbottiae
    Denkania
    Detrusandra mystagoga
    Dewalquea pulchella
    Dicroidium odontopteroides
    Dictyopteridium
    Dictyozamites
    Dirhopalostachys
    Divisestylus
    Donlesia dakotensis
    Doylea tetrahedrasperma
    Dressiantha bicarpellata
    Drewria
    Elkinsia
    Elsemaria kokubunii
    Emporia
    Endressianthus
    Endressinia
    Endressinia brasiliana
    Eoantha zerikhinii
    Eoepigynia burmensis
    Eophyllogonium cathayense
    Ephedra
    Ephedra equisetina
    Eremalche rotundiflora
    Eretmonia
    Esgueiria futabensis
    Eucalyptolaurus depreii
    Eucommiidites
    Euparyphoselis
    Eurya
    Evolsonia texana
    Exesipollenites
    Exnelumbites callejasiae
    Fraxinopsis
    Freyantha sibirica
    Fryopsis
    Furcula
    Fuxianhuia protensa
    Galbulimima
    Gangamopteris
    Gassonoxylon araliosum
    Gaussia
    Geraea canescens
    Gigantonoclea
    Gigantonoclea acuminatiloba
    Gigantonoclea hallei
    Gigantonoclea lagrelii
    Gigantonomia
    Gigantopteridium
    Gigantopteris dictyophylloides
    Gigantotheca
    Ginkgo
    Ginkgo biloba
    Glechoma
    Glossopteris
    Glossopteris sastrii
    Glossotheca
    Gnetum
    Gnetum gnemon
    Gnetum parvifolium
    Gothanopteris
    Graminidites
    Gunnera
    Hamatia
    Haptoncus tahktajanii
    Hedeoma
    Hedyosmum
    Helicoverpa armigera
    Hidakanthus
    Hironoia fusiformis
    Hyrcantha (Sinocarpus) decussata
    Hyrcantha karatscheensis
    Icacinoxylon
    Illiciospermum
    Inoceramus
    Irania
    Ischnophyton
    Iterophyllum lobatum
    Jaguariba wiersemana
    Jambadostrobus
    Javelinoxylon multiporosum
    Jerseyanthus calycanthoides
    Joffrea
    Karibacarpon
    Karkenia
    Kendostrobus
    Keraocarpon
    Kerpia
    Klitzschphyllites choffatii
    Komlopteris cenozoicus
    Ktalenia
    Lactoripollenites africanus
    Lasiostrobus polysacci
    Lauranthus
    Leefructus
    Leptostrobus
    Lescuropteris
    Lesqueria elocata
    Leucothoe
    Lewisia
    Libanoeuaesthetus
    Lidgettonia
    Lidgettonia africana
    Linophyllum
    Liriodendroidea
    Liriodendron tulipifera
    Lithangium
    Litocarpon beardii
    Lonesomia mexicana
    Lovellea wintonensis
    Lusicarpus planatus
    Lusistemon striatus
    Lycopus
    Lyginopteris



    M - Z

    Mabelia archaia
    Mabelia connatifila
    Macclintockia
    Maiandrocarpus
    Malliocarpus
    Malosma
    Manningia
    Marah
    Marrubium
    Mayoa portugallica
    Mauldinia
    Mauritiidites
    Medullosa
    Megalopteris
    Melissa
    Menispermites potomacensis
    Metcalfeoxylon kirtlandense
    Microaltingia
    Microvictoria
    Mitocarpus
    Moluccella
    Monanthesia
    Monetianthus mirus
    Montia
    Musa
    Myricanthium
    Neogigantopteridium
    Neozamites
    Nepeta
    Nephropsis (Sulcinephropsis)
    Neusenia
    Neuropteris
    Nilssoniocladus
    Nilssoniopteris
    Nilssoniopteris vittata
    Nipaniophyllum
    Nipaniophyllum raoi
    Noferinia fusicarpa
    Nordenskioldia
    Normanthus
    Nuhliantha nyanziana
    Nymphaea odorata var. rosea
    Otozamites
    Ottokaria
    Pachypteris papillosa
    Pageoxylon cretaceum
    Palaeoanthella huangii
    Palaeocarpinus
    Palaeognetaleana
    Palaeognetaleana auspicia
    Paleoenkianthus sayrevillensis
    Palaeogoniopteris
    Paleanthus problematicus
    Paleoclusia chevalieri
    Palmoxylon cliffwoodensis
    Palmoxylon pristina
    Palmoxylon simperi
    Pandanus
    Pannaulika triassica
    Papaver orientale
    Paraalnipollenites
    Paracaytonia hongtaoi
    Paradinandra suecica
    Paraphyllanthoxylon anazasii
    Paraprotophyllum
    Parasaurauia allonensis
    Paravojnovskya (Gaussia) imbricata
    Patellilabia
    Peltaspermum
    Pennipollis
    Pennistemon
    Pentapetalum trifasciculandricus
    Pentoxylon
    Pentoxylon sahnii
    Permuralia maculata
    Perseanthus
    Petriellaea
    Phasmatocycas bridwellii
    Picea
    Picea abies
    Picea abies var. acrocona
    Pilophorosperma
    Pinus jeffreyi
    Pinus lambertiana
    Pistacia
    Platananthus
    Plataninium
    Platanocarpus brookensis
    Platanocarpus marylandensis
    Platydiscus peltatus
    Platanathus
    Platanocarpus
    Platanus
    Ploufolia cerciforme
    Pluricarpellatia peltata
    Podocarpus
    Poliomintha
    Polytheca
    Potomacapnos apeleutheron
    Pragocladus lauroides
    Prisca reynoldsii
    Progigantopteris
    Proteacidites
    Protofagacea allonensis
    Protohaploxypinus
    Protomonimia kasai-nakajhongii
    Prunella
    Pseudocycas
    Pseudomariopteris
    Pseudotsuga macrocarpa
    Pseudovoltzia liebeana
    Pterygospermum
    Pterygospermum raniganjense
    Pteroma
    Pteroma thomasii
    Pterophyllum
    Pteruchus
    Ptilophyllum
    Quadriplatanus georgianus
    Quaestora
    Raoanthus intertrappea
    Raunsgaardispermum lusitanicum
    Reymanownaea
    Rhabtotaenia
    Rehezamites
    Rhexoxylon
    Rhus
    Sabal bigbendense
    Sabal bracknellense
    Sabalites longirhachis
    Sabalites ungeri
    Sagaria cilentana
    Sagenopteris
    Sagenopteris colpodes
    Sahnia
    Salazaria
    Sandrewia
    Sanmiguelia
    Sapindopsis
    Sarysua pomona
    Sassafras
    Satureja
    Saurauia
    Scandianthus costatus
    Schenkeriphyllum glanduliferum
    Schinus
    Schisandra
    Schmeissneria
    Scutifolium jordanicum
    Scutum
    Searsia
    Selaginella
    Semionogyna
    Shuklanthus superbum
    Silucarpus camptostylus
    Silvianthemum
    Sinocarpus (Hyrcantha) decussatus
    Sobernheimia jonkeri
    Spanomera
    Spathoxyela
    Spermatocodon
    Spermopteris
    Spinozonocolpites
    Spirematospermum chandlerae
    Spixiarum kipea
    Squamella
    Stephanostoma
    Strelitzia nicolai
    Sulcinephropsis
    Supaia
    Symphaenale futabensis
    Taeniopteris
    Taeniopteris multinervis
    Taeniopteris spatulata
    Tarahumara
    Taxus
    Teixeiraea lusitanica
    Teucrium
    Thermopsis macrophylla
    Thuringiostrobus florinii
    Trapago angulata
    Tricoccites trigonum
    Trinerviopteris
    Triphyllopteris
    Tropidogyne pikei
    Tubicaulis
    Tylerianthus crossmanensis
    Tyrmia
    Umkomasia
    Umkomasia macleanii
    Valecarpus petiolatus
    Vardekloeftia
    Vardekloeftia sulcata
    Vasovinea
    Vertebraria
    Viracarpon
    Virginianthus calycanthoides
    Vitreisporites
    Vojnovskya paradoxa
    Weinmannioxylon petriella
    Weltrichia
    Welwitschia
    Welwitschia mirabilis
    Williamsonia
    Williamsonia sewardiana
    Winteroxylon
    Xingxueanthus sinensis
    Xingxueiana heilongjiangensis
    Xylocarpus
    Yabeiella
    Zamites
    Zamites tidwellii
    Zeilleropteris
    Zeugarocarpus
    Zlatkocarpus


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    THIS PAGE WAS LAST MODIFIED JANUARY 15, 2014


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